The team believes Pacific whiting skin gelatine (PWG) inhibits skin photoaging by recovering type I procollagen and decreasing the actions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1), proteolytic enzymes that degrade various proteins.
In addition, PWG activated collagen synthesis and inhibited collagen degradation, recovering the imbalance of collagen caused by UVB-irradiation.
“Fish skins are an abundant resource that we already know have valuable nutritional properties," explains Jung Kwon, Assistant Professor at Oregon State's Seafood Research & Education Center in Astoria, Oregon.
"But we wanted to find out what additional potential value might be found in something traditionally considered a byproduct."
Writing in the journal Marine Drugs, Dr Kwon and her team began researching the molecular pathways that explain on a cellular level the wrinkling of skin.
Wrinkling is the result of chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which breaks down collagen in the skin.
The team extracted gelatine from Pacific whiting fish and then looked at what impact it had on antioxidant and inflammatory responses and pathways known to degrade collagen and promote synthesis of collagen.
They found that the Pacific whiting skin reactivated to a certain degree the collagen synthesis pathway that had been suppressed by UV radiation.
Further findings revealed that the skin prevented activation of the collagen degradation pathway that had been accelerated by UV radiation.
Dr Kwon also noted that the skin promoted additional antioxidant activity and promoted additional anti-inflammatory effects.
"We saw some potential with a positive response in the cell model system," Dr Kwon adds. "This gives us good evidence to take those next steps."
Further research needed
Kwon cautioned that these are initial results obtained in her lab through a human cell model system. Further research is needed using animal models.
“Our study has shown that PWG not only restores imbalances in collagen synthesis and degradation but also has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties,” the study concludes.
“Taken together, our finding suggests PWG as a promising material for preventing skin photoaging.
“Analysis of the detailed chemical composition of PWG is currently underway to identify the compounds responsible for elicited bioactivity of PWG.
“Identification and characterisation of the active component of PWG based on the current work will help enable the skin health application of PWG.”
Source: Marine Drugs
Published online: DOI: 10.3390/md20050308
“Anti-Photoaging Effect of Hydrolysates from Pacific Whiting Skin via MAPK/AP-1, NF-κB, TGF-β/Smad, and Nrf-2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in UVB-Induced Human Dermal Fibroblasts.”
Authors: Seok Hee Han et al.